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Routing & Switching

Switching – STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) overview

Why we use the STP- to avoid the loop on L2 networks. L2 networks works based on the Ethernet headers and Ethernet headers do...

Interview Questions – OSPF DR/BDR

How is DR elected in an network and how can others know who is DR, which specific address are used?On which network DR/BDR is...

Interview Questions: OSPF area types, router types , network types.

Why area 0 is called backbone area?How does summarization work in OSPF in case have A1-A0-A2?Can we connect a router which is not...

Interview Questions – BGP path selection, route filtering, attributes, messages, troubleshooting.

If we have two routers connected to same ISP, which path will be selected as primary and on which parameter if all the attributes...

BGP Communities – Lets have a look

BGP communities are the nothing but a method of tagging. Tagging can help in path manipulations and filtering. Tagging can be done on all...

OSPF Adjacency States

Let’s check the OSPF adjacency State Machine, how OSPF routers go through various states before becoming adjacent. OSPF Routers goes through below 7 states /...

LSA 9 ,10, 11 – Opaque LSA

Coming soon this week...Stay Tuned

OSPF MTU MISTMATCH ISSUE AND FIX

While maintaining and creating neighbor adjacency OSPF sends IP MTU in its DBD packets. MTU should match on both ends for forming and even to...

OSPF Packets: Lets have a close look at OSPF packets

OSPF uses the following 5 packets(Click on the buttons, to view in details) between two routers to form and maintain the adjacency, topology table...

OSPF Packets: DBD

Let’s open the DBD packet and use what's inside, why DBD is required and how DBD are exchanged DBD: DATABASE Description packet, which has message...