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Fundamentals

IPv4 – Lets have a packet analysis

As you know IPv4 is a routed protocol, it means this protocol is used for L3 addressing only and not for routing. We route...

IP Packet flow/Fundamentals of Routing

This blog will give a high-level explanation on how the basic packet flow works in a network, which includes your PC, Switches and Routers.We...

FUNDAMENTALS OF RSVP : Lets have a look with lab

When it comes to QOS, we have the three basic models as below: Best Effort (do not use QoS for traffic that does not need any...

OSPF Adjacency States

Let’s check the OSPF adjacency State Machine, how OSPF routers go through various states before becoming adjacent. OSPF Routers goes through below 7 states /...

OSPF Packets: Lets have a close look at OSPF packets

OSPF uses the following 5 packets(Click on the buttons, to view in details) between two routers to form and maintain the adjacency, topology table...

OSPF DR/BDR

Lets see how OSPF elects DR/BDR, how becomes DR, why BDR is elected first and the election process. Significance of DR/BDR As we are all aware,...

MPLS LABEL

MPLS LABEL : MPLS is multiprotocol label switching, which is between L2 and L3 Header also known as L2.5 protocol.We will have more detail articles...

BGP Introduction

BGP - Border Gateway Protocol is the backbone of internet. It is a type of Exterior Gateway protocol and successor of EGP protocol. BGP...

BGP Split Horizon

BGP was build for Internet Routing keeping in mind, so when we see any rules or implication of BGP like why it is so...

BGP Route Reflector

As discussed in the article for Split Horizon Rule, IBGP neighbor doesn't forward routing update received from an IBGP neighbor to another. To...