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IPv4

IPv4 – Lets have a packet analysis

As you know IPv4 is a routed protocol, it means this protocol is used for L3 addressing only and not for routing. We route...

OSPF Adjacency States

Let’s check the OSPF adjacency State Machine, how OSPF routers go through various states before becoming adjacent. OSPF Routers goes through below 7 states /...

OSPF Packets: Lets have a close look at OSPF packets

OSPF uses the following 5 packets(Click on the buttons, to view in details) between two routers to form and maintain the adjacency, topology table...

BGP Split Horizon

BGP was build for Internet Routing keeping in mind, so when we see any rules or implication of BGP like why it is so...

OSPF ROUTE TYPES

So far we have seen OSPF packet types, OSPF Messages, OSPF Areas, DR/BDR election and stuff. This article will help in understanding all the OSPF...

BGP Route Reflector

As discussed in the article for Split Horizon Rule, IBGP neighbor doesn't forward routing update received from an IBGP neighbor to another. To...

MPLS : What is MPLS , Why we need MPLS, is it still Used?

This article is just a Jump start to MPLS and overview, like why MPLS came into picture, is it still into used. We will...

traceroute for ip networks- Checking path for ip networks

As we studied about ping in our last article, ping can only tell us if connectivity is ok or broken. It can not tell...